Micro-Emulsion vs. Macro-Emulsion
The concept of emulsion fuels is widely known.
Sylvatex has developed a sophisticated recipe for a micro-emulsion that will dramatically reduce costs for the petroleum industry, and allow refiners to economically meet the LCFS demands upon them, while expanding their operating margins.
Injecting water to clean engines to boost horsepower is also an accepted practice among diesel engineers, since direct cylinder injection of water is known to reduce NOx and PM emissions markedly. Also, the use of ethanol in mixtures with diesel has been studied widely as a means of reducing emissions.
The trick all lies in the means for delivering the water and ethanol.
Water can be physically injected into the cylinder, or it can be introduced via the fuel. But since water does not mix with diesel fuel, some means must be used for creating a water-in-oil mixture – an emulsion. One can try to create an emulsion of large water bubbles in oil – a macroemulsion – or small water bubbles in oil – a microemulsion.
The vast majority of fuel developers have attempted to develop macroemulsions, that is, suspensions of relatively large water bubbles in diesel oil. Additional chemicals, called surfactants (or “surface active agents”), help keep these bubbles suspended. Developers have primarily chosen the macroemulsion path because it minimizes their costs by using a limited amount of surfactant.
The downside is that macroemulsions are unstable. The water and diesel components separate rapidly, which is why macroemulsion technologies have failed in the market.
The proprietary Sylvatex microemulsion technology is the ultimate solution to this problem: it is stable, cost-effective, and easy to produce and distribute.
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